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Article 95 - Types and Antitypes
Biblical Types and Anti-types
Jon Gary Williams
The Old and New Testaments often compliment each other. One of the areas in which this is seen in the types of the Old Testament which are revealed in the New Testament anti-types. The word "type" refers to an impression of one thing that is left on another.
In the New Testament there are a number of "anti-types" which are cast as shadows back to the Old Testament. "For the law having a shadow of good things to come..." (Heb. 10:1) Many great truths are conveyed through the types found in Old Testament.
I. God's Great Plan - The story of salvation began in the mind of God. Nothing as marvelous as this plan could have come from the mind of man. (Rom. 11:33; cf. Is. 55:8,9) It involves God's eternal purpose. (Eph. 3:11) This great plan involves three basic areas.
A. The coming of the Messiah - Christ came into the world to fulfill the plan ofII. The Old Testament Prepared God's plan - God's great plan was slowly worked out through the ages, from the time of Adam to the time of Christ. Hence, in the Old Testament are found many things which foreshadow the gospel age. The New Testament verifies this.
heaven - to be the Savior of man. (Gal. 4:4; Matt. 5:17; Jn. 3:16,17)
B. The establishment of the Messiah's kingdom - The kingdom is the church to
which the saved are added. (Matt. 16:18,19; Acts 2:41,47)
C. The revealing of the gospel - The gospel message revealed God's eternal plan
making it possible to be understood. (Rom. 1:16,17; Eph. 1:13; 5:32; I Pet.
A. Romans 15:4 - This text explains that things which were written before (in the Old Testament) were penned so that people now could "learn."
B. I Corinthians 10:6,11 - The experiences of Israel serve as an "example" for those living now. Though the Israelites are dead, they continue to teach us by their experiences.
C. Colossians 2:16,17 - The various sacrifices, observances and feasts of the Old
Testament, though not to be observed today, were a "shadow" of things to come in the Christian age.
D. Galatians 3:24,25 - The law served a purpose by preparing the world for the coming of Christ, but when this was accomplished it was to be removed.
III. The Use Of Types In God's Plan - God used many circumstances which took place during the Old Testament to explain the unfolding plan of redemption. They are sometimes referred to as a "shadows" (Heb.10:1), "similitude" ["likeness" - ASV] (Rom. 5:14) and "allegory" (Gal. 4:24). There are several different kinds of types found in the Old Testament which are used by God to present valuable lessons related to New Testament truths.
A. People - God used certain people of the Old Testament as examples of others who lived later. For example, Elijah served as a type of John the Baptist. (Mk. 9:11-13)Only through God could such a unique and marvelous system of revelation have been revealed. This is another evidence of the inspiration of the Bible. The is summarized by Paul in II Timothy 3:16. "All scripture is given by the inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness..."
B. Things - Objects of the Old Testament were used to illustrate important truths in the New Testament. For example, the brazen serpent on a pole was used to portray Christ on the cross. (Jn. 3:14)
C. Institutions - The passover lamb under the law period served as a type of Christ's sacrifice. (I Cor. 5:7)
D. Events - God chose to use the deliverance of Israel from bondage through the Red Sea as a type of our deliverance from sin through baptism. (I Cor. 10:1,2)
E. Places - Israel's journey through the wilderness to reach the promise land is a type of the Christian's journey to heaven. (I Cor. 10:3-11)
Adam - A Type of Christ
The first man was Adam. In the Bible he is not only known for being the first man, but also for being the first type of Jesus Christ. The two are referred to as "the first Adam" and "the second Adam" as well as "the first man" and "the second man." (I Cor. 15:45-47)
Adam is spoken of as a "figure" of Christ. (Rom. 5:14) In this sense he was the type and Christ was the anti-type. What can Adam tell us about Jesus? The Bible contains several parallels between these two men.
I. Both entered the world by miracle
A. Adam was miraculously created from the dust of the earth. Gen. 2:7II. Both were named by God
B. Jesus was conceived of the Holy Spirit and was miraculously born of a virgin. Matt. 1:18-20,23
A. Adam received his name directly from God. Gen. 5:2III. Both were tempted
B. Likewise, Jesus was given his high and holy name from the Father. Phil. 2:9
A. Adam was tempted by Satan through Eve. Gen. 3:6,7; 3:17-19IV. Both were free of sin
B. Jesus was tempted by Satan. Matt. 4:1-11
A. At the beginning Adam was free of sin because he was in the image of God. Gen. 1:27V. Both were given wives who came from themselves
B. Jesus was also free of sin. II Cor. 5:21 Heb. 4:15 I Pet. 2:22 I Jn. 3:5
A. Adam was given Eve from his own side. Gen. 2:21-23VI. Both wives derived their names from their husbands
B. Jesus was given the church (his bride) by the blood which flowed from his side. Acts 20:28 Jn. 19:34
A. Eve received her name from Adam. Gen. 3:20VII. Both are identified as head over their wives
B. Christ's bride, the church, is identified by his name. Acts 11:26 Rom. 16:16
A. Adam was placed over Eve. Gen. 3:16 (cf. I Tim. 2:11-13)VIII. Both respond to the wishes of God - but differently
B. Jesus is head over his bride, the church. Eph. 1:22,23 Col. 1:18
A. Adam committed an act of disobedience. Rom. 5:19IX. Both held a special identity with death
B. However, Jesus demonstrated obedience. Heb. 5:7-9
A. Adam's sin cursed the world with death. Rom. 5:12X. Both affected mankind's relation to paradise
B. However, through Jesus death is conquered. I Cor. 15:20-22, 25,26
A. Adam and his descendants lost the original paradise home. Gen. 3:23,24The parallel between Adam and Christ is truly remarkable. The human mind could not have devised such a unique way of comparing these two Biblical figures. Only God could have foreknown and foretold such an amazing story. The climaxing theme of the parallel between Adam and Christ is the fact that what was lost through Adam can be regained through the Son of God.
B. However, Jesus makes it possible for true paradise to be regained. Rev. 2:7 (Note: "paradise" is an anti-type of Eden and the "tree of life" is an anti-type of the tree of life in Eden.)
Noah - A Type of Our Salvation
One of the greatest characters of the Old Testament is Noah. We are told that he was "righteous" and "perfect" (or blameless) and that he was a man who "walked with God." (Gen. 6:9) Is there any doubt that we can learn some important lessons from this man?
That Noah was an actual person is endorsed by Moses and other Old Testament writers who "spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit." II Pet. 1:21 (see Is. 54:9; Ezek. 14:14,20) Also, Jesus spoke of Noah as a historical figure and of the flood was a historical event. Lk.17:26,27 Likewise, the apostles addressed Noah as a real person. Heb. 11:7; I Pet. 3:20; II Pet. 2:5
I. Noah's faith and obedience - an example
B. Noah is known for his faith in God through his obedience to God's word. Gen. 6:22; Heb. 11:7 Because of this Noah enjoyed the benefits of God's grace - salvation from the flood.II. Noah's ark and the church - there are some remarkable parallels between the ark and the church
C. Today, in the Christian age, it is through our faith and obedience that we are saved from the wrath of God in the final destruction. Heb. 11:6; 5:9
A. Both were planned by God.III. Water and salvation
1. The ark was designed by God. Gen. 6:14-16B. There was only one ark and one church.
2. The church was also designed by God. Eph. 3:10,11
1. Noah was told to make only one ark. Gen. 6:14C. Both the ark and the church have only one entrance.
2. God planned only one church. Matt. 16:18; I Cor. 12:12,13,20; Eph. 4:4
1. The ark had only one door. Gen. 6:16D. Salvation is found only within the ark and the church.
2. The church has only one door - Christ himself. Jn. 10:7,9; Jn. 14:6
1. Only those inside the ark were saved from the flood. Gen. 7:1,7,23; I Pet. 3:20
2. Only those inside the church are saved. II Cor. 5:17; Eph. 5:23; II Tim. 2:10
A. Noah and his family were "saved by water" - that is, as it lifted the buoyant ark above the destruction below. I Pet. 3:20IV. The flood and destruction by fire - II Pet. 3:5-7
B. Our salvation comes through baptism in water. I Pet. 3:21; Mk. 16:16; Heb. 10:22
A. The first universal destruction was temporary and came by water. Gen. 7:11,12; 17-20, 24The significance of Noah in God's revelation of man's great salvation cannot be overemphasized.
B. The last universal destruction will be permanent and will come by fire. II Pet. 3:10-12
Noah's faith, the ark he built and the place water holds in salvation are of great importance to the world.
Melchizedek - A Type of Christ
In addition to Adam the book of Genesis also uses Melchizedek as a type of Christ. This historical setting, found in Genesis fourteen, reveals the looting of Sodom by foreign kings who took Lot, the nephew of Abraham, captive. Abraham, with his armed servants, pursued and overtook them and rescued Lot. Gen. 14:12-16 On the return trip, Abraham was met by Melchizedek who is identified as the "king" of Salem (ancient Jerusalem) and a "priest" of God. To Melchizedek Abraham paid tithes, who then pronounced a blessing on Abraham. Gen. 14:18,19
Melchizedek is also mentioned briefly in Psalms as David gives a prophetic statement
regarding the coming Messiah. Ps. 110:4 He is also referred to in the New Testament to
explain some important principles about Jesus and his work.
I. Jesus, like Melchizedek, is a priest.
A. Heb. 5:6,10 6:20 7:15,17II. Jesus, like Melchizedek, is king as well as priest.
B. A priest is one who has special access to God. He offers sacrifices and serves as a mediator for others. Jesus fits this perfectly. Heb. 7:25 I Tim. 2:5,6 I Jn. 2:1,2
C. In the Old Testament there were two different orders of priests - one represented by Melchizedek, another represented by Aaron (Levitical priesthood). Heb. 7:11
D. Like Melchizedek, Jesus was the only priest in his order. (Melchizedek received his priesthood from no ancestor and passed it on to no descendant.) Heb. 7:3
A. Heb. 7:1 (cf. Gen. 14:18)III. The priesthood of Christ is superior to that of Aaron.
(Notice the logical line of reasoning in the 7th chapter of Hebrews.)
B. The term "Christ" means "anointed," that is, anointed to be king. Matt.16:16 "Thou art the Christ" Acts 2:36 "God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ"
C. Jesus is called "king." Lk. 23:2 Jn. 19:12 Acts 17:7 I Tim. 6:15
D. Jesus has a kingdom. Col. 1:13 Rev. 1:9 (Note: No man can have a kingdom without being a king.)
E. This distinguishes Jesus from priests of the law of Moses. They had no kingly role. However, Jesus serves as both king and priest.
A. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek. Heb. 7:2,4Although mentioned briefly in the Old Testament, Melchizedek is very important in the revelation of God's will. Because of him we can have a better understanding of the high and lofty position enjoyed by Christ. Jesus holds a superior position to that of the Old Testament system. Heb. 4:14; 7:26-28 The Lord is, indeed, our King and our great High Priest.
B. However, Levi (representing the Levitical priesthood) was yet unborn and still "in the loins" of Abraham and, therefore, representatively, paid tithes to Melchizedek through Abraham. Hence, this showed the inferiority of Levi. Heb. 7:5-10
C. The coming of another priesthood implies the imperfection of the old priesthood. (Since Melchizedek is greater than Abraham, his priesthood is also greater than the priesthood which came out of Abraham.) Heb. 7:11
D. A change in the priesthood makes it necessary that there also be a change in the law. Heb. 7:12
E. The priesthood of Christ has to be different because he is from a different tribe. Heb. 7:13-17
F. Because of its weakness and unprofitableness the old law had to be replaced by a better hope. Heb. 7:18,19
G. The testament of Jesus is better because his priesthood was established by the oath of God himself. Heb. 7:20-22
H. The Old Testament priesthood changed hands by virtue of death. However, since Jesus lives forever, his priesthood is unchangeable. Heb. 7:23-25
Sarah & Isaac; Hagar & Ishmael - Types of the Two Covenants
The family of Abraham is very important in God's plan for man's salvation. By understanding the development of this family (Jewish nation) we can better appreciate God's plan.
From Ur of the Chaldees God directed Abraham and his family into the land of Canaan. Gen. 11:31; 12:1-5 But, for God's plan to be accomplished it was essential for Abraham to have offspring (seed) through whom, one day, the Savior would be born. Gal. 3:16 Even though he had been promised an offspring, his wife, Sarah, thought she could bear no children, and suggested that he have a child by her handmaid, Hagar. This resulted in the birth of Ishmael. Gen. 16:1-3, 11 Because of this problems began to arise. Gen. 16:4-6
It was God's plan that Sarah have a son. Gen. 17:19 In time Isaac was born. (Gen. 21:1-5). However, more complications began to develop. Gen. 21:8-14 It is from this incident that
another Biblical type is drawn.
During the spread of the early church Judaizing teachers were attempting to bind the law of Moses on Christians. To expose this false teaching Paul used the Old Testament conflict between Sarah and Hagar. Gal. 4:21-31 In this "allegory" he shows that the old covenant had been replaced with the new covenant and, hence, Christians were to reject these false teachers.
I. The distinction between these women and their sons
A. Gal. 4:21-23II. Hagar and Ishmael represent the Old Covenant - Judaism
B. One was a "free-woman" and the other was a "bondmaid."
C. One son was born after the "flesh" and the other was born by "promise."
A. Judaism, which is based on the old covenant, originated at Mt. Sinai where God gave the law to Moses. Gal. 4:24III. Sarah and Isaac represent the new covenant - Christianity
B. The covenant represented by Hagar was "bondage." Gal. 4:24 Note: The law of Moses segregated the Jews until the coming of Christ. Gal. 3:19 (cf. v.24) The law was a wall between the Jew and Gentile that was broken down by the death of Christ. Eph. 2:14,15 However, some of the Jews still preferred to keep the old law. Gal. 5:1
C. The system represented by Hagar and Ishmael corresponds not only to Sinai but to the earthly city of "Jerusalem." Gal. 4:25
D. Hagar and Ishmael represented the "flesh." Gal. 4:23,29(a) Note: The birth of Ishmael was not planned by God. It was strictly a fleshly birth and corresponded to the fleshly thinking of the Jews. Gal. 6:12
A. Sarah and Isaac represent the Jerusalem that is "above." Gal. 4:26 (cf. Heb. 12:23) Note: The church (kingdom of God) is spiritual. Jn. 18:36 "My kingdom is not of this world"This was a powerful lesson for the early Christians who were being influenced by false teachings. It shows, beyond doubt, the superiority of Christianity over Judaism and the fact that those who would leave Christ for the law of Moses forfeit their faith in Christ. Gal. 5:4
B. Isaac's birth was based on God's promise. Gal. 4:23 This corresponds to the spiritual birth of those who enter the spiritual kingdom. Jn. 3:3-5 (cf. I Pet. 1:18,19,23)
C. Isaac was persecuted by Ishmael. Gal. 4:29 (cf. Gen. 21:9) The descendants of Ishmael continuously persecuted the descendants of Isaac (the Jews). Likewise, during the days of Paul, the church (spiritual Israel) was persecuted by physical Israel. Acts 17:5; 18:12 Note: Jesus had said that persecution would come. Matt. 5:10-12 Jn. 15:20
D. The bondwoman and her son were "cast out" and this son was not to be heir with the son of the free-woman. Gal.4:30 It was in God's plan for the old covenant to be done away and only spiritual Israel would be heir of God. Col. 2:14 Rom. 7:4; 8:16,17
E. God's true children are not a part of Judaism but of Christianity. Gal. 4:31
| Old Covenant
| New Covenant
| Bond woman (In bondage to the law)
||Free woman (Free in Christ)
| Jews, fleshly Israel
|| Christians, spiritual Israel
| Mt. Sinai
| Related to physical Israel
||Jerusalem from above
|The old law began there
| The new law began there
| ...by Ishmael
||...by the Jews
| Cast Out
| Children of the bondwoman
|| Children of the free-woman
The Passover - A Type of Christ and Our Salvation
Because Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let Israel leave Egypt, God sent a series of plagues on the land, the last of which was the death of the firstborn of both man and beast. (Ex. 11:4,5). As God passed over Egypt, for Israel to escape this plague they were to sprinkle the blood of a spotless lamb on the doors of their homes. Ex. 12:7,12,13 This became known as the "Passover." God then commanded that each year the people observe this event, which involved a feast lasting seven days beginning on the 14th of Nisan (late March or early April). This feast (also called "feast of unleavened bread") involved the killing of a year old, spotless lamb (or kid, Ex. 12:5) and the eating of it with unleavened bread. Ex. 12:8-11,15 (cf. Lev. 23:5,6)
In the Bible the word "Passover" is used in three ways: 1) of the animal, Ex.12:21; 2) of the supper, Jn.18:28; 3) of the entire week of the feast, Lk.22:1.
In God's plan the Passover had two purposes: 1) to remind the people of their deliverance from Egypt, Ex. 12:14; 2) to be a type of Christ and our salvation under the Christian system, I Cor. 5:7. This type includes three different things.
I. The Lamb - The lamb was a picture of Jesus who was offered for the sins of the
world. As the pascal lamb saved Israel from the last plague, so the blood of Christ
saves man today from his sins.
A. Jesus is the "lamb of God." The major difference is that he was a lamb offered for all mankind. Jn. 1:29 Rev. 19:9II. The House - The homes of the Israelites played an important role in their deliverance. They were instructed to remain in their houses all night. Ex. 12:21,22 Marked with blood, their homes became places of security. Ex. 12:23 This is a perfect picture of the Lord's church.
B. Jesus, like the physical lamb, had his blood shed. Matt. 26:28 Rev. 1:5 Jn. 19:34
C. Jesus was truly perfect and sinless. Heb. 4:15; 5:9 I Pet. 1:19; 2:21,22
D. The lamb offered by Israel was to have no broken bones. Ex. 12:46 In spite of the cruel crucifixion, Jesus did not have a bone broken. Jn. 19:33-36 (cf. Ps. 34:20)
A. The church is the "house of God." I Tim. 3:15 Those who are saved are added to it. Acts 2:47 (cf. Eph. 5:23)III. The Leaven - Something else important to the Passover was the absence of leaven. Before the Israelites could observe the Passover, all leaven had to be removed from their homes. Ex. 12:15-19 The removal of this leaven represents the leaving off of sin in the Christian age.
B. The church, being purchased with Christ's blood, is to be identified by that blood.
C. Spiritual security is promised only to who are in Christ. Rom. 8:1 II Cor. 5:17
A. Leaving the practice of sin is a part of becoming a child of God. Lk. 24:47 ActsThe passing over of Egypt by God shows his great wisdom and power. In this one act he both defeated evil and saved the Jews from death. However, the salvation of Israel was conditional. Though the blood was shed, yet, they had to be in their homes and had to remove the leaven. We, today, in order to receive the benefit of Christ's blood, must be in his church and leave the practice of sin.
B. Sin, like leaven, can spread. I Cor. 5:6
C. The church is made up of those who are the "unleavened." It is necessary to "purge" the old leaven. I Cor. 5:7,8 (cf. I Cor. 5:1,2)
D. Purity is what God expects of his people. Tit. 2:11,12 I Thess. 5:22
Israel - A Type of Our Salvation
While presenting God's unfolding plan of redemption the Bible, in several instances, makes reference to the Israelite nation. It was God's purpose that through our knowledge of the experiences of the Israelites we might better appreciate his message for us today.
The deliverance of the Jews from Egyptian bondage by the crossing of the Red Sea, their journey through the wilderness and their entering into the promised land, all serve as patterns for the greater salvation under the Christian system. Several notable messages can be learned from these events.
I. The Exodus - a type of baptism
A. The shedding of the blood of the lamb (Ex. 12) made it possible for Israel to be set free from bondage. However, in order for them to receive the complete benefit of this there was something else they had to do - depart from Egypt.II. The wilderness - a type of the "church in the wilderness"
B. Leaving the land of Egypt is described as a "baptism." I Cor. 10:1,2 (Note: Baptism is an immersion. As Israel crossed through the Red Sea the walls of water were on both sides and overhead was the great cloud. Ex. 14:22-24)
C. This was the day of their deliverance from bondage. Ex. 14:13,30
D. In the Christian dispensation the lost are "buried" with Christ in baptism. Rom. 6:4 Col. 2:12 This is the point at which the lost are delivered from the bondage of sin. Mk. 16:16; Acts 2:38; 22:16 (cf. Gal. 1:3,4)
A. When the Jews left Egypt they did not go directly to the promised land (Canaan). Rather, they were led into the wilderness. Ex. 15:22; 19:1 They remained there for forty years. Num. 14:34III. The promised land - a type of heaven
B. The wilderness was a period of testing. Heb. 3:8,9 Many of the people perished. Num. 14:27-29; I Cor. 10:5; Heb. 3:16,17 Jude 5
C. Israel's journey in the wilderness serves as an "example" for us. I Cor. 10:6,11
D. At baptism people do not go directly to heaven. Rather, they enter the Lord's church. Acts 2:41,47 (This is, in the anti-type of the "church in the wilderness.")
E. Disciples of Christ live in the world. Jn. 17:15,18
F. Living in the world, Christians experience various trials. I Cor. 10:13; Heb. 3:10-14; 12:1 I Pet. 5:8
G. In this present life Christians are spoken of as "strangers and pilgrims." I Pet. 2:11
A. Although the Israelites were led into the wilderness, their real destination was Canaan. (Many years before this land had been promised to the descendants of Abraham. Gen. 12:1-3; 17:8; Ex. 6:4,8)
B. To the Israelites Canaan was a beautiful, bountiful land "flowing with milk and honey." Ex. 3:8,17; Ex. 13:5 (cf. Deut. 8:7-9)
C. The promised land is referred to as a place of "rest." Heb. 3:11,18
D. For those who are part of the church in the wilderness, heaven will someday be a place of wonderful blessings. Matt. 5:12; 25:34 I Cor. 2:9; Rev. 21:4
E. For the saved heaven will also be a place of eternal "rest." Heb. 4:9,11; Rev. 14:13 (cf. Matt. 11:28-30) After reaching the end of their journey in the wilderness, for the Israelites there was one thing that remained. They were brought over Jordan and into the promised land. Someday all of God's redeemed will cross over into the eternal city of God. Jn.14:2,3 (cf. Heb. 11:10,16; Rev. 22:14)
Moses - A Type of Christ
Moses was used by God in mighty ways. He used him to lead the nation of Israel out of Egypt, to reveal his law to the people and to lead them through the wilderness. He was also used to verify the preeminence of Christ at the mount of transfiguration. Matthew 17
Moses' life can be divided into three equal periods of forty years each. First, in Egypt, from his birth to his flight into the land of Midian. Ex. 1 & 2 (cf. Acts 7:23-29) Second, in the land of Midian until called by God. Ex. 3:10 (cf. Acts 7:30-34) Third, in the wilderness from Egypt to Canaan. Num. 14:33,34 (cf. Acts 7:36)
At the close of Moses' life God told him, "I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Deut. 18:18 By inspiration this statement is applied to Christ. Acts 3:22; 7:37 But how is it that Moses was a type of Christ?
I. Both were from within the Hebrew nation
A. Moses was a Hebrew. One like him was to arise from the same nation. Deut.18:18II. Both had their lives threatened in youth
B. Moses was the son of Amram and Jochebed of the tribe of Levi. Ex.6:16,20
C. Jesus was the son of Joseph and Mary of the tribe of Judah. Matt.1:18-21; Heb.
7:14 (cf. Rev. 5:5)
A. At Moses' birth the king decreed that all baby boys be put to death. Ex. 1:15,16,22III. Both were rejected by their people
B. When Jesus was born king Herod had all children in Bethlehem under two years of
age put to death. Matt. 2:16
C. Both were hid from danger. Moses - Ex. 2:2 Jesus - Matt. 2:13-15
A. Moses was "refused" by his own brethren. Ex.14:10-12; Acts 7:35IV. Both made a sacrifice
B. Many of the Jews would not receive Jesus. Jn.1:11; 6:66 (cf. Lk.19:14)
A. Because of choosing to do right, Moses left the wealth of Egypt and the king'sV. Both were faithful
house. Ex. 2:15; Heb. 11:24-26
B. In a much greater sense, Jesus left his heavenly home to come to earth as Savior.
Jn.6:38 (cf. Phil. 2:5-8)
A. Although Moses was human and made mistakes, he was faithful in his leadership of Israel. Faced with many trials he remained "faithful" to God. Heb.3:5VI. Both were prophets
B. Likewise, Christ, in view of many great trials and temptations, was "faithful" to God. Heb. 3:1,2
C. One basic difference between the two is the fact that while Moses was a servant "in" his house, Christ was a son "over" his house. Heb. 3:5,6
A. Moses was God's prophet to the Jews. Deut. 18:18VII. Both were deliverers
B. Christ is God's prophet of much greater dimension. Matt. 21:11; Lk. 7:16; 24:19; Jn. 4:19; 7:40; 9:17; Acts 7:37
A. Moses delivered the Jews from the bondage of Egypt. Acts 7:35VIII. Both were workers of miracles
B. Christ delivers all men from bondage to sin. I Thess. 1:10; I Tim. 1:15 (cf. Col. 1:13)
A. Moses worked miracles before Israel. Acts 7:36IX. Both delivered a law from God
B. Christ performed many more miracles. Jn. 20:30; 21:25
A. Through Moses God gave the Old Testament law. Deut. 4:44Moses, the type of the Son of God, gives us a better picture of why Jesus came to earth and what he did. As Moses led the people from bondage in Egypt to the promised land, so Jesus will one day lead all the redeemed to heaven.
B. Christ gave a law, but a law of much greater depth and meaning. Gal. 6:2 (cf. Rom. 8:2; Jam. 1:25; 2:12)
C. The contrast between the law of Moses and the law of Christ. Jn.1:17 (cf. Rom. 6:14)
The Brass Serpent - A Type of Christ's Crucifixion
In the book of Numbers are found some of the experiences of Israel during their wilderness wandering. One of these events was especially unusual. Jesus himself cited it and made the following observation. "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up." John 3:14 Jesus, of course, was referring to his death and made a clear connection between the two.
Even though God was gracious to Israel, bringing them out of Egypt, giving them a law and providing for their physical needs, they still became "discouraged." Num. 21:4 They began to complain and spoke against God and Moses. Num. 21:5 Because of this God sent "fiery serpents"among them which resulted in the death of many. Num. 21:6 They quickly repented saying to Moses, "We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord and against thee." Num. 21:7 They asked Moses to pray for them which resulted in God giving a remedy. Moses was told to place a serpent of brass on a pole with the provision that those who looked on it would be healed. Num. 21:8,9 There are some important lessons found in the events surrounding this story.
I. The serpents' bites were fatal
A. The "fiery serpents" brought physical death to the people of Israel. I Cor. 10:9 Likewise, today, because of sin spiritual death comes to all mankind. Rom. 3:23; 6:23; 8:6,13II. The acknowledgment of sin
B. Satan, our enemy, is also called a "serpent" whose aim it is to inflict harm. II Cor. 11:3 (cf. Rev. 12:9; 20:2) Peter referred to him as our great "adversary" who seeks to "devour" us. I Pet. 5:8
A. With death all about them the people were fearful, which caused them to repent. They willingly acknowledged their sin asking Moses to petition God for them. (Num. 21:7) Had they failed to repent they would not have been delivered.III. The serpent lifted up
B. Today, as man looks about, he sees the dreadful effects of sin. Through the Bible he is made aware of the final effect of unforgiven sin. Matt. 13:49,50; 25:41,46 This causes him to want to repent. (cf. Acts 8:18-24)
C. Repentance is central to God's plan for man's salvation. "Godly sorrow" causes man to acknowledge sin and, hence, repentance is made possible. II Cor. 7:10 It is essential that we admit our sins and turn away from them. Lk. 13:3; 24:47; Acts 2:38; 3:19; 17:30
A. The brass serpent was raised on a pole. Num. 21:8IV. Looking on the serpent
B. Christ was elevated on the cross. Jn. 3:14; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29 (cf. Jn. 8:28)
A. In order to be healed and saved from death the people were required to "look" on the brass serpent. Num. 21:8V. The cure was effective
B. Today, to be healed from the effects of sin people must look to Jesus. Heb. 2:9; Jn. 12:32 (cf. Heb. 12:2)
C. Just as the healing of the Israelites was conditional, so the forgiveness of our sins is conditional. Matt. 7:21; Heb. 5:9 (As Israel was instructed what to do in order to receive healing, we today are instructed what to do to have our sins taken away. (Mk. 16:16; Acts 2:38; 22:16)
A. By means of the brass serpent God provided power for the people to be healed. Num. 21:9VI. The uniqueness of God's plan
B. Through Christ power is provided for man to be healed from sin. Rev. 1:5; Jn. 3:16; (cf. Is. 53:5)
C. In order to continue receiving the cleansing of Christ's blood we must walk in his light. I Jn. 1:7
A. God did not remove the serpents from the Israelites, but a way was made to remove the effects of the serpents' bites. Num. 21:8,9
B. Today, God does not take away the temptation of sin, but provides a way to be cleansed from sin that is committed. I Jn. 1:9
The Tabernacle - A Type of the Greater Tabernacle
After Israel left Mount Sinai they were instructed to build the tabernacle. This was to be the center of their religious activity. Exodus 25--27 It was to be built in strict accordance with the "pattern" given by God. Ex.25:40 (cf. Heb. 8:5)
The tabernacle was a tent-like structure thirty cubits long and ten cubits wide (45' by 15') and was divided into two compartments. The first was the "holy" place measuring twenty cubits by ten cubits (30' by 15') and the second was the "most holy" place measuring ten cubits by 10 cubits (15' by 15'). Between the two compartments was a veil (Ex. 26:33). Within the "holy" place was the lampstand, the table of shewbread and the altar of incense.
Within the "most holy" place was the ark of the covenant. An elaborate priesthood attended to the tabernacle. Ex. 28:1 In front of the tabernacle was the altar of burnt offerings on which sacrifices were made. There was also a laver in which the priests washed before entering the tabernacle.
In the design of God the Old Testament tabernacle pointed to something to come. It represented a greater system in which Christ would be "great high priest." Heb. 9:11 What are some of the parallels between two tabernacles?
I. The "holy" place - a type of the church
A. The lampstand, kept by the priests, represents the gospel, the light of God's truth. II Cor. 4:4; Eph. 5:13 (cf. Ps. 119:105)II. The "most holy" place - a type of heaven
B. The shewbread, prepared and eaten by the priests, represents the Lord's supper. I Cor. 10:21
C. The smoke from the altar of incense, which the priests kept burning continually,
represents the prayers of Christians ascending before God. Rev. 5:8; 8:4
A. The "most holy" place was so designated because God's presence was there. It was upon the ark of the covenant, covered with a gold "mercy seat" and two cherubims, that Israel offered the blood sacrifices. It was here that God "communed" with the people. Ex. 25:17-22; Num. 7:89III. The priests - a type of Christians
B. The "most holy" place represents heaven, the wonderful abode of God. Ps. 11:4; Hab. 2:20 This is where Jesus went to offer his sacrifice as "high priest." Heb. 9:24
A. Ordinary priests served the tabernacle in various ways, entering only the "holy" place. Heb. 9:6 (cf. Ex. 27:21; 28:1; 40:12-15)IV. The high priest - a type of Christ
B. All Christians, as priests, serve God within his church. I Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6
A. The high priest alone entered the "most holy" place on one day every year, offering the blood of an animal for the sins of the people. Heb. 9:7,25V. The laver - a type of baptism
B. Christ is our "high priest." He has gone "once" into the "most holy" place, heaven, to make offering for our sins. Heb. 4:14; 8:1; 10:12
A. The laver of water was just outside the tabernacle. In it the priests were required to wash before entering the tabernacle. Ex. 30:18-21VI. The sacrifice on the altar - a type of Christ's sacrifice
B. The laver of water represents baptism. Before entering the church ("holy place") we are required to be baptized to have our sins washed away. Heb. 10:22; Rev. 1:5; Acts 22:16
A. Sacrifices were made on the altar of burnt offerings. Lev. 1:1-9 (cf. Lev. 3:1,2; 7:1,2)VII. The blood on the mercy seat - a type of Christ's blood
B. These sacrifices represent the offering (sacrifice) of Christ. However, the sacrifice he offered was his own body and was offered only once. Heb. 10:10-12. (Note: Not only is Christ the "high priest," he is the "sacrifice" as well.)
A. Once each year the high priest placed animal blood on the mercy seat as an atonement for sin. Lev. 16:14; Heb. 9:7; 13:11
B. This represents the blood of Christ, offered for the sins of the world. Heb. 9:12,24 The tabernacle of the New Testament was not "pitched" by man, but by God. Heb. 8:2 It is a "greater and more perfect" tabernacle. Heb. 9:11 Into the "most holy" place Christ leads those who follow him. Heb. 10:19,20 (cf. Heb. 6:19,20)
Additional Biblical Types
The Bible contains a number of types which are not lengthy and do not involve as much detail as some others. However, since they establish spiritual truths, they are just as important. These types are from various categories - people, places, events and things.
I. Jonah - a type of Christ
A. Jonah was "three days and three night" in the stomach of the great fish, but, afterwards he came out. Jonah 1:17; 2:10II. Manna - a type of the true bread, Christ
B. Likewise, Jesus was in the "heart of the earth" for the same period. He likewise
came forth. Matt. 12:40; 28:6
A. In the wilderness the Israelites became hungry and were given "manna" fromIII. The flood - a type of the final destruction of the world
heaven. Ex. 16:4,15
B. Jesus referred to this and showed that he was the "true bread" of life of whom we are to partake. Jn. 6:30-35, 48-51
A. The flood of Noah's was devastating, covering all the earth and destroying the life of both man and beast. Gen. 6:17; 7:17-19; II Pet. 2:5; 3:5,6IV. The nation of Israel - a type of Christ
B. God used the flood to bring to man's attention the final destruction of the world by fire. II Pet. 3:7, 10-12
A. When "called" out of Egypt the nation of Israel was spoken of as God's "son." Hos. 11:1 (cf. Ex. 4:22,23)V. Wicked Babylon - a type of corrupt Judaism (Jerusalem)
B. Jesus, God's "son," after being taken to Egypt to escape Herod's threat, was also "called" out of that land. Matt. 2:15
A. Old Babylon was known for its corruption. Jer.51:49,64VI. Old Testament characters - types of true Christians
B. Corrupt Judaism (Jerusalem) which severely persecuted the church is compared to ancient Babylon. Rev.17:5; 18:21
A. Abel, Enoch, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Israel, Gideon, Samson,VII. Elijah - a type of John the baptist
Jephtha, David, et al., all demonstrated genuine faith. Heb. 11:1-40
B. These are "witnesses" - examples of, what Christian faith should be. Heb.12:1
A. Elijah, the prophet of God, was known for his great and powerful works. Mal. 3:1; 4:5,6; Isa. 40:3,4VIII. David's throne - a type of Christ's throne
B. Elijah is used to represent John the baptist, the great herald of Christ. Matt. 3:1-3;
Lk. 1:17; Matt. 17:11-13
A. David, the great king of Israel, reigned upon his throne. II Sam. 3:10IX. The tree of life - a type of the true tree of life
B. David's throne figuratively represents the throne of Christ, of which he made a prophetic statement. Acts 2:30,31 (cf. Lk. 1:32,33)
A. After their sin in Eden, Adam and Eve were deprived of access to the "tree of life." Gen. 3:22-24X. The garden of Eden - a type of the true paradise of God
B. This tree is a likeness to the true "tree of life" which depicts man's access to
salvation. Rev. 2:7; 22:2,14
A. The garden God prepared for our first parents was man's original paradise home. Gen. 2:8ff However, because of sin, it was lost. Gen. 3:23XI. The law of Moses - a type of the perfect law of Christ
B. That garden corresponds to the true "paradise" that can be regained through Christ.
A. The law given through Moses was engraved on stones and had a degree of glory. Ex. 24:12 (cf. II Cor. 3:7)
B. The Mosaic law represents the more "glorious" law which is written on the heart.
II Cor. 3:6-11